Grafite e grafene i materiali del futuro ? - Pagina 3
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  1. #21
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    Con questi titoli di miniere di grafite non bisogna avere fretta; le produzioni di grafite inizieranno mediamente tra due anni (tranne Flinders che inizierà a luglio 2014) e quindi il mercato per ora è attendista, perché aspetta che le società reperiscano i fondi per installare i macchinari delle miniere.
    Comunque, per chi ci crede, è questo il momento di piazzarsi in acquisto, dato che i prezzi delle azioni sono ancora bassi. Quando tutti parleranno di grafite, sarà troppo tardi.

  2. #22
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    Toyota non svilupperà più le auto elettriche

    Seeing Future in Fuel Cells, Toyota Ends Tesla Deal


    By HIROKO TABUCHIMAY 12, 2014

    Toyota said on Monday that it would allow a battery-supply deal with Tesla Motors to expire this year and would focus instead on building cars running on hydrogen fuel cells, a next-generation technology that rivals Tesla’s all-electric systems.

    Toyota Motor invested $50 million in Tesla to acquire a 3 percent stake in the Silicon Valley upstart in 2010, and signed a $100 million joint-development deal in 2011 for a version of Toyota’s RAV4 crossover sport utility vehicle that carried Tesla’s electric powertrains. At the time, the two automakers suggested that the RAV4 electric vehicle could be the start of a wider collaboration.

    But the electric RAV4 has sold poorly, despite low-cost lease and loan offers Toyota introduced last year to promote sales. And Toyota has increasingly signaled that it sees fuel cells as the most viable zero-emissions technology, putting it at odds with Tesla, an evangelist for electric-vehicle technology. Toyota is also the world’s biggest manufacturer of gas-electric hybrids.

    Toyota said in an emailed statement that it was “re-evaluating” its RAV4 electric vehicle, and that Tesla’s supply agreement for the model would “conclude this year.” Toyota said that its contract had called for Tesla to supply 2,500 battery-electric powertrains for the RAV4.

    The Japanese automaker said its focus this year would instead be on its four-door sedan powered by hydrogen fuel cells, which it plans to introduce in California next year. The automaker will also focus on developing hydrogen refueling stations to support fuel-cell technology, it said.

    Tesla said Friday in a regulatory filing that it expected the supply deal to end this year. Toyota said it would keep its stake in Tesla for now.

    “It’s obvious Toyota doesn’t see a market for electric vehicles,” said John O’Dell, green-car analyst at the auto-research site Edmunds.com. “They really see the future of the zero-emission vehicle as the hydrogen vehicle,” he said.

    “In partnering with Tesla, there might have been a message there that Toyota was looking at the possibility” of a wider partnership with the Silicon Valley manufacturer, he said. “But they can’t even give these cars away. Why continue doing this?”

    The winding down of the supply deal comes just four years after the two automakers announced their partnership to much fanfare, in May 2010, when Tesla bought an assembly plant in Fremont, Calif., that Toyota had closed.

    The plant had been the site of a joint venture between General Motors and Toyota. But G.M. ceased production there during its bankruptcy and restructuring in 2009, and Toyota closed the factory a year later.

    In return, Toyota agreed to buy $50 million of Tesla common stock and said the companies intended to cooperate on the development of “electric vehicles, parts and production-system and engineering support.”

    That came as a surprise to analysts, as Toyota executives had long talked down the all-electric car in favor of the company’s own gas-electric hybrid technology, which cost the automaker millions of dollars to develop.

    And yet as momentum built in recent years around all-electric powertrains, Toyota was increasingly criticized for lagging behind in a crucial automotive technology. In 2010, Nissan released the Leaf, which it billed as the world’s first mass-produced all-electric car. General Motors followed with its plug-in Chevrolet Volt.Toyota, for a time, appeared to be hedging its bets. In a joint news conference with Tesla in 2010, Toyota’s chief executive, Akio Toyoda, said the market had not yet chosen the best low-emissions technology. He said the company was preparing for all options.

    “When customers do give us their answer,” Mr. Toyoda said, “I want the company to be ready.”

    Toyota introduced its own all-electric vehicle in 2012, a car based on its iQ ultra-mini compact that the automaker developed independently. But Toyota has limited sales of that car to fleet customers. At the same time, electric vehicles have struggled to reach the mass market, hindered by consumer concerns over their range and high cost.

    Alec Gutierrez, senior analyst for Kelley Blue Book, said he did not see the deal’s end as a tremendous **** to Tesla. The boutique automaker would just shift its attention to the Model X sport utility vehicle, he said, which it is set to sell next year. Still, it came as a disappointment, he said.

    “There was a hope that this would have taken off and that Toyota would plan a mass-market vehicle,” he said. “But now they’re heading in two different directions.”

  3. #23
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    Toyota said on Monday that it would allow a battery-supply deal with Tesla Motors to expire this year and would focus instead on building cars running on hydrogen fuel cells, a next-generation technology that rivals Tesla’s all-electric systems.


    Che voi sappiate le auto che vanno ad idrogeno necessitano di batterie alla grafite ?

  4. #24
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    Large-scale fuel cell applications are being developed that could consume as much graphite as all other uses. (USGS Jan 2012).

    Uses of Graphite
    • Advance applications led by
    emerging ‘cleantech’ markets
    • Significant increase in global
    demand at a rate of 2 to
    4 percent per annum
    • Applications for ultra-high
    purity graphite include:
    lithium-ion batteries, fuel
    cells,
    pebble bed nuclear
    reactors, vanadium flow
    batteries, solar PV panels,
    high quality synthetic
    diamonds, lubricants, etc.
    • Traditional uses
    connected to the steel and
    automotive industries

    Questa frase l'ho trovata sul sito di Zenyatta Ventures;
    io non ne capisco niente di fuel cell, ma mi pare di intendere che anche li serva la grafite, e che quindi essa verrà utilizzata sia nelle auto elettriche che in quelle a idrogeno.

    Chi se ne intende può darmi un aiuto per capire bene se la grafite sarà utilizzata anche nelle fuel cells ?
    Ultima modifica di Implacabile; 19-05-14 alle 12:12

  5. #25
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    Fuel Cells

    In PEM fuel cells, graphite plays an important role as the preferred raw material for bipolar plates. Natural graphite offers unique properties as listed below:
    •high electrical conductivity
    •chemical inertness
    •extremely low permeation coefficient
    •mechanical stability
    •a favorable price


    Battery Specs

    Finished Grade

    Mesh Size

    Surface Area

    Alkaline 90-99.9% C -150 + 250
    Lead Acid 90-95% C -250 +300
    Lithium Ion 99-99.9% C -300 +500 3-13 m2/gram
    Spherical Graphite 99.9%C 10 _m - 50 _m 3.7 - 5.4 m2/gram
    Fuel Cells 99.9% C -100 +350 1.5 - 6.5 m2/gram

  6. #26
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    On a weight basis the anodes and cathodes that make up the individual half-cells of a fuel
    cell stack account for a significant portion of the total mass of the
    FC device. Typical plates are compounded mixtures containing up
    to 90% graphite so each FC unit can have a substantial quantity of
    graphite in its workings.
    Graphite is the material of choice for the PEMFC anode and cathode
    assemblies. The selection of graphite as the
    right material is obvious since graphite is
    highly conductive, low in density compared to other conductive
    materials, inert, and cost effective.
    Graphite is one of the few non-metallic substances that are both
    electrically and thermally conductive. Both of these physical
    attributes contribute significantly to the success and importance of
    graphite in the PEMFC application.

  7. #27
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    Dunque abbiamo accertato che la grafite è utilizzata anche nelle fuel cells ad idrogeno che molte case automobilistiche stanno sperimentando.
    Resta da capire che qantità di grafite ci vuole per ogni automezzo; infatti sappiamo che per le auto elettriche necessitano dai 50 ai 100 Kg di grafite, mentre per le fuel cells non saprei dire quanti kg di grafite verranno utilizzati (anche se penso, così a occhio, che ne serviranno molti di meno).

  8. #28
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    VANCOUVER, BRITISH COLUMBIA--(Marketwired - May 16, 2014) - LOMIKO METALS INC. (TSX VENTURE:LMR)(LMRMF)(DH8B.F)(Europe: ISIN: CA54163Q1028, WKN: A0Q9W7,) (the "Company") announces that it has received conditional approval from the TSX Venture Exchange to invest, through its wholly owned subsidiary, $300,000 in a private placement at .25 for 1,200,000 shares of Matnic Resources Inc. ("Matnic"), a public company that trades on the TSX Venture Exchange (TSX VENTURE:MIK). The transaction is subject to Matnic receiving regulatory approval to a reverse takeover ("RTO") by Graphene 3D Lab ("Graphene 3D").





    In addition, Lomiko has created the new 100% owned subsidiary, Lomiko Technologies Inc. ("Lomiko Tech"). The above investment will be done through Lomiko Tech and will only proceed if the RTO receives the approval of the Exchange. This transaction is further to the Company's investment in Graphene 3D, as approved by the Exchange on December 3, 2013. The Company made a $50,000 investment for a 15% interest and was issued 250,000 Series "A" Preferred stock of Graphene 3D. If the RTO is successful, Lomiko will exchange its 250,000 shares of Graphene 3D to shares in the newly formed graphene entity created through the RTO.

    "This is an exciting time for graphene and 3D printing companies with large multi-nationals such as Imerys, Samsung and General Electric entering the market." stated A. Paul Gill, CEO, "Lomiko Technologies allows Lomiko to invest in the future of 3D printing and graphene while Lomiko Metals works toward a 43-101 graphite resource in the near term."

    On September 17, 2013, Lomiko and Graphene Labs reported that in the first step of the conversion process of graphite to graphene, natural graphite flakes were oxidized and turned into Graphene Oxide ("GO") by a modified Hummer's method. The properties of graphene, including its high conductivity, mechanical strength, and high specific surface area, make it an ideal electrode material.

    On January 20, 2014 Graphene 3D Lab reached a significant milestone by filing a provisional patent application for the use of graphene-enhanced material, along with other materials, in 3D Printing (Additive Manufacturing).

    Additive Manufacturing is the process of creating a three-dimensional, solid object from a digital file, of virtually any shape. 3D printing is achieved using an additive process, whereas successive layers of material are laid down and create different shapes.

    Adding graphene to polymers which are conventionally used in 3D printing improves the properties of the polymer in many different ways; it improves the polymers mechanical strength as well as its electrical and thermal conductivity. The method described in the provisional patent application allows consumers to use the polymer, infused with graphene, together with conventional polymers in the same printing process, thereby fabricating functional electronic devices using 3D printing.

    New developments in 3D printing will allow for the creation of products with different components, such as printed electronic circuits, sensors, or batteries to be manufactured. 3D Printing is a new and promising manufacturing technology that has garnered much interest, growing from uses in prototyping to everyday products. Today, it is a billion dollar industry growing at a brisk pace

    Graphene 3D Lab Inc. Background

    Graphene 3D Laboratories Inc a spin-out of Graphene Laboratories Inc, and Lomiko Metals and focuses on the development of high-performance graphene-enhanced materials for 3D Printing. For more information on Graphene 3D Labs, Inc, visit Home

  9. #29
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    Parere personale

    Con i cali degli ultimi giorni, i prezzi delle miniere di grafite sono diventati ancora più attraenti. Certo, per il momento rappresentano solo una scommessa sul futuro, ma mi pare che le cose si stiano mettendo per il verso giusto: le miniere cinesi sono in crisi e nuovi settori richiedono l'uso della grafite.
    Chi ha coraggio e disponibilità economiche, può fare il grande passo ed entrare nel magico mondo della grafite.

  10. #30
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    Entriamo nel mercato da 8.000 $ a tonnellata

    Independent Test: Focus Graphite Succeeds in Producing Extremely High-Performing Coated Spherical Graphite For Lithium Ion Batteries

    Creates the Potential for High Value Sales in the Li-Ion Battery Sector

    OTTAWA, ONTARIO--(Marketwired - May 27, 2014) - Focus Graphite Inc. (TSX VENTURE:FMS)(FCSMF)(FKC.F) ("Focus" or the "Company") is very pleased to announce the results from coin cell tests for the lithium ion battery market recently performed on Lac Knife Spherical Graphite ("SPG").

    Focus Graphite is the sole owner of the world-class, high-grade Lac Knife natural flake graphite project in Quebec. The Company's aim is to become one of the lowest cost producers of high-purity technology graphite from a vertically integrated business strategy.

    Testing was conducted by a globally recognized, North American laboratory with particular expertise in processes related to lithium ion battery technologies. Its clients are some of the most advanced technology-related corporations in the world. The laboratory has completed its testing and has measured the performance properties of Lac Knife's materials on an environmentally sustainable basis. Focus Graphite has withheld the name of the laboratory for reasons of commercial and competitive confidentiality.

    Highlights
    Lac Knife SPG battery tests evaluate three proprietary formulations that responded very well to CR2016 coin cell performance testing
    Large, medium and fine micron size produced outstanding performance metrics
    Testing results on the premium medium and fine grades exceed the performance of benchmark commercially available grades by significant percentages.
    Tests confirm Focus' capability to tailor lithium ion battery anode grade graphite and value added products to meet the most stringent customer specifications

    Focus Graphite Reversible Capacity Irreversible Capacity Loss Surface Area
    Coin Cell Test Samples (Ah/kg) (%) (m2/g)
    Coarse Carbon Coated SPG Grade (D90=42um) 362.1 6.80 % 0.64 %
    Medium Carbon Coated SPG Grade (D50=24um) 363.7 1.44 % 0.48 %
    Fine Carbon Coated SPG Grade (D50=17um) 365.1 1.01 % 1.14 %

    A benchmark commercial grade of SPG provided a reversible capacity (RC) in the range of 345 to 355 Ah/kg and an irreversible capacity loss (ICL) of 6.5 %, a significantly higher loss compared to the 1.44% and 1.01% ICL for Lac Knife's medium and fine grade samples shown above.

    In Lockstep With Industry

    "Recent comments by leading North American auto makers signalled two significant market realities," said Focus CEO and Director Gary Economo.

    "The first is the need to lower the costs of battery materials to encourage broader consumer interest in moving to electric vehicles. The second is that the potential North American battery market may well enjoy a much larger than anticipated growth in demand," Mr. Economo said.

    "Again, these results add another layer of material value that holds the potential to de-risk even further our global enterprise goals," he said.

    A detailed summary of the SPG tests is provided below.

    SPG grades developed by Focus Graphite may help to solve one of the more difficult challenges holding back market growth for Li Ion batteries, "Increasing cycling capacity." One of the problems in using carbon based materials in Li Ion batteries is that it results in the formation of a Solid Electrolyte Interface ("SEI") layer which produces an irreversible capacity loss which generally ranges between 5 and 10% for benchmark SPG grades currently available in the market place.

    Irreversible capacity loss means that a portion of the valuable lithium and graphite is wasted. Thus the efficiency is reduced and the cost increased. Lac Knife anode graphite is unique in having such a low loss.

    Two premium (medium and fine) grade SPG's developed by Focus have achieved First Cycle Irreversible Capacity Losses of 1.44% and 1.01%, respectively, truly remarkable results. These lower ICL values of the SPG grades produced by Focus can lead to the production of higher capacity and longer life Li Ion batteries.

    Furthermore, the low surface areas of the premium coated grades of SPG at 0.48 and 1.14% m2/g can help to improve the safety of Li Ion batteries. The use of higher surface area carbons in these batteries can cause the temperature of the battery to increase and possibly result in the occurrence of thermal runaways.

    Figure 1: The following Galvanostatic charge-discharge curve for the fine SPG grade illustrates the very promising nature of the Lac Knife concentrate. To view Figure 1, please visit the following link: http://media3.marketwire.com/docs/fms-figure1.pdf.

    This material has demonstrated a reversible capacity of 365.08 Ah/kg and an irreversible capacity loss of an ultra low 1.01%. The performance metric is calculated between the two curves in the chart above is the difference between 368.8 and 365.08 on a percentage basis. Approximately an 80% improvement over commercial benchmark grades was achieved.

    The unique properties of the Lac Knife high carbon content concentrate that grades 98% C even in the finer grade products down to 200 mesh (75 microns) that are usually the most difficult products to sell. This holds the potential to allow Focus market access to significantly higher margin value added products with a finer grade lower cost product creating a unique opportunity. Additionally, Focus plans to offer the higher value large flake to other growing markets.

    The -100 mesh size (150 microns), 98% C and +65 mesh size (230 microns) flake products spheronize very well establishing a unique Lac Knife concentrate quality.

    Potentially these excellent Irreversible Capacity Loss ("ICL") results from the Lac Knife high quality flake uncoated concentrate are due to low reactivity at the flake edges compared to other graphite concentrates underlying its inherent value as a feed to the secondary battery market in a green technology revolution.

    Also included in the study is a scanning electron photomicrograph of the 99.98 % purified high purity large flake graphite (See Figure 2 below) produced on both a laboratory and pilot plant scale from 98% C Lac Knife +65 mesh flake concentrate. This photomicrograph indicates that the Lac Knife concentrates are uniquely suited to produce high purity lithium ion battery grade graphite. What is important to note is that Lac Knife graphite concentrate consists of very pure graphite flakes with impurities located on the surface of the flakes.

    Figure 2: Photomicrograph of Thermally Purified Flake Graphite showing exceptionally clean surfaces and grading 99.98% C. To view Figure 2, please visit the following link: http://media3.marketwire.com/docs/fms-figure2.pdf.

    Such surface impurities can be removed by using less expensive technologies. In the most competitive concentrates on the market, the impurities are intercalated or sandwiched within the layers and are more difficult to remove requiring higher cost processing methods during purification.

    Figure 3: Photomicrograph of Thermally Purified Spherical Graphite grading 99.9% C. To view Figure 3, please visit the following link: http://media3.marketwire.com/docs/fms-figure3.pdf.

    The quality of the Lac Knife concentrate is continuing to create the potential for increased margins through to value added products and confirms the Company's plan to evaluate the potential of secondary transformation for as much of the Lac Knife production as is possible. The potential for increased margins from the secondary transformation of graphite concentrate is not included in the current Preliminary Economic Assessment for the project.

    Current prices for coated, spherical graphite are at the $8,000 per tonne point. This compares to $20,000 per tonne for battery grade synthetic graphite, the only alternative for the anode in the battery.

    "Commercially and competitively, these results open the door for Focus to confidently accelerate our plans to market and sell our battery grade, high margin products to potential partners and customers," said Focus President and COO Don Baxter.

    "The data presented validates Lac Knife's potential to become a North American source of low-cost high purity flake graphite concentrate that could, possibly, lead to the production of batteries with better performance," Mr. Baxter stated.

    "Further, these results enable us to continue with our vision of producing value added products. In particular, Focus' Director of Manufacturing and Technology Dr. Joseph Doninger and our Consultant, Mr. George Hawley have the capability to lead Focus through the development of various lithium ion battery products with the aim of building higher margin applications and downstream products" Mr. Baxter said.

    Dr. Doninger said: "The Lac Knife premium medium and fine grades of coated SPG at 1.44% and 1.01% first cycle irreversible capacity losses and 0.48 and 1.14 m2/g surface areas are better than any similar sized SPGs that I've ever seen."

    Battery manufacturers require a cost competitive alternative to current sources of natural SPG. China produces about 90% of the world's purified natural SPG, utilizing methods that are generally regarded as environmentally unsustainable.

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